Hawker Tempest

Originally known as the Typhoon II, Hawker's Tempest came about through research into thinner wings that would handle speeds above 400mph, where compressibility effects become pronounced. It was not as simple as merely putting a thinner wing on a standard Typhoon fuselage, as the “Tiffie” carried its fuel in its thick wings, and thus space elsewhere had to be found for the displaced tankage. This was accomplished by stretching the fuselage by some 21 inches to permit the installation of a fuel cell. Besides being considerably thinner than that of the Typhoon, the Tempest's wing was also larger, and the original elliptical planform was altered on production aircraft by clipping the wingtips.

Tempest Variants: Tempest I: Prototype with the Sabre IV, wing radiators. No series production.

Tempest II: Bristol Centaurus engine. The first Tempest II flew as early as June 1943, but the type's projected use with Tiger Force in the Pacific never came about due to the Japanese surrender. Some 472 examples (including 50 constructed under license by Bristol) were finished, although hundreds more were cancelled. After occupation service in Germany, aircraft of No 33 Squadron did see combat use against Malaysian terrorists. Following RAF use, examples were supplied to both India and Pakistan.

Tempest III/IV: Hawker P.1016 with Rolls-Royce Griffon. Not proceeded with.

Tempest V: Principal production version, powered by the Sabre II. Despite having a higher mark number, the V was actually the first variant to be operationally employed - the model arrived in service in the spring of 1944 - this was fortuitous, as the Germans were to shortly begin launching V-1 cruise missiles against the UK, and the high-powered Tempest proved quite capable of catching the missiles, with Tempests taking out nearly a third of the V-1s that were destroyed in the air. In all, some 800 Tempest Vs were built before the line shut down at the end of the war. Mk.Vs fitted to tow targets as TT.5s were the final Tempests in RAF service, flying until 1955.

Tempest Bibliography:

"Annular Tempest In The Air" Flight Oct 7, 1948 p.421 Includes an in-flight photo of Mk.6 NV768 with annular radiator and ducted spinner, pilot report.

Color profile: Tempest V SA-F with invasion stripes. RAF Yearbook 1984 p.66

Photo: Close up of rocket projecticles under the wing of a Tempest II Aeroplane Monthly July 1987 p.359

Photo: Tempest of No.6 Squadron after a forced landing. Aeroplane Monthly September 1989 p.547

Michel Guillon "Hawker Tempest Mk.V" Wing Masters August 2000 Building the 1/72 scale Academy kit.

Olivier Soulleys "Hawker Tempest Mk V" Replic June 1997 The 1/48 Eduard kit. This issue also has cockpit photos and a page of color profiles.

Photo: Tempest TT. MkV SN261 of the Central Gunnery School FlyPast January 1998 p.27

Photo: Tempest II MW348 FlyPast January 1998 p.39

Photo: Tempest II MY763/G-TEMT under restoration. FlyPast November 2002 p.15

Tempest Mk V 1/72 scale plans with cross sections Scale Aviation Modeller December 2002

Review of the Academy 1/72 Tempest Mk V kit Scale Aviation Modeller International May 2000

Review of the Special Hobby 1/72 Tempest Mk II kit Skymodel 10/06 p.65

Chris Hall Review: Special Hobby Tempest Mk.II Scale Aviation Modeller September 2009

Preview: 1/48 Tempest Mk.V from Eduard Model Airplane International January 2012

Photo (color): Indian AF Tempests in storage Warbirds International Jan/Feb 2012 p.64

Steve Abbey "Causing a Storm" Airfix Model World #21 Building the Eduard Tempest.

Color profile: Pakistani AF Tempest II of No.3 Squadron. The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Air Warfare p.382

Michael Ovcacik, Karel Susa Hawker Tempest Includes 1/72 scale plans, exhaustive photo detail of the airframe components and engine, cockpit diagrams, external store diagrams, and several pages of profiles.

Bill Gunston Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft of WWII Color in-flight picture of NV768 fitted with the annular radiator.

Bill Gunston Aircraft of World War II ISBN 0-517-31680-3 p.98-99: color 5-view of a Tempest Mk. V of No. 3 Squadron

W. Wayne Patton Aces 3, Squadron/Signal publications 2004 p.35 color profiles of Tempest Mk. Vs NV784 and NV994 flown by Pierre Clostermann.

Jim Winchester Classic Military Aircraft: The World's Fighting Aircraft 1914-1945 p.235: color profile of Tempest Mk VI NX245/No 213 Squadron

Chris Bishop The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Air Warfare p.260: color profile of postwar Tempest II PR797